Jin Kim [note 4] 89 disagrees, arguing that similarly powerful Hunnic federations in the Eurasian Steppe managed to come together without such financial backing. Some suggest that such payments were sensible, fending off Hun aggression: Thompson note 4 chapter 8; Kelly note 18 f. But they did not prevent the devastating attacks of the s.
Lenski [note 18] points out that the sums paid to the Huns would have been even higher when taking into account the regular payment of ransoms for prisoners. Whitby [eds], The History of Theophylact Simocatta. Lenski [note 18] f. It most emperors to threaten the Avars, adopting was ultimately the Western political ambitions an aggressive approach to diplomatic dealings and extreme appetites of the Hun ruler Attila, with the khaganate upon coming to power. In which distracted him from the Eastern Roman particular, his dismissive treatment of the Avar provinces, bringing about his Gallic and Italian envoys and refusal to continue paying them campaigns of AD — and death from over- annual subsidies in AD were welcomed by indulgence in But it was only successor, Tiberius Constantine, to start paying in the s that armies were finally deployed in enormous amounts of tribute from AD on- Avar territory by the emperor Maurice.
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This was because Justin II failed to back again, there are hints at a divide and rule policy, up his aggressive rhetoric with the sort of mi- with the western Turkish khagante, great rivals litary force or aggressive divide and rule diplo- of the Avars within the Steppe world, being en- macy which were necessary to manage the Avars couraged to oppose the Avars during diplomatic in practice. However, once again, the Avar threat and made inevitable the eventual the total domination of the northern world payment of huge subsidies Further, diplomatic moves were made to Leo I Somewhat like Justin II in the sixth cen- set subject peoples against the Avars during the tury, Marcian refused to continue paying the s But none of these policies mounted a se- Huns the annual tribute owed to them according rious challenge to Avar supremacy.
It is often argued that emperors the s or early s Bearing in war with Sassanian Persia in the East.